What are Negative Ions?

What are Negative Ions?
An ion is a particle which contains electricity. An Atom is the smallest particle that exists in the composition of any material. Ions are being made in the air we breathe very fast. 10 to 20 Ions Per Cubic Centimeter (CC) are being made per second. There are 200 to 500 Ions found in 1 CC of ordinary outdoor clean air, and 100 to 200 Ions in 1 CC of clean indoor air.

Negative ions are created naturally in nature by the energy associated with waterfalls, rolling surf and lightning. Negative ions are negatively charged particles formed when enough energy acts on a molecule to eject an electron. The displaced electron then attaches itself to a nearby molecule, which then becomes a Negative Ion. Negative ions can have a refreshing effect on the body; similar to the experience you would have if you were standing next to a waterfall. Negative ions can also produce a calming effect on the mind and support immune function.

The role of Negative Ions on our overall health:
Many studies of the relationship between the negative Ion and our health made by professional researchers prove that our health is dependent on the amount and quality of Ions in the air.  The human body consists of billions of cells, and each cell is enclosed by a cell membrane. This cell membrane performs many important roles, and one of these is to absorb nutrients and eliminate waste material. The function of the entire cell (including the cell membrane) can be normalized, if there are enough negative Ions within and outside the cell.

The reverse holds true if there is a lack of negative Ions, and too many positive Ions present within a cell. Then absorption of nutrients and elimination of waste material can not be done effectively. As a result diseases such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, cerebral apoplexy, cancer and many other diseases occur.

Other afflictions caused by and improper number of Ions in the body include anemia, allergies, infirmity, shoulder pain, lumbago, rheumatism, neuralgia and headaches, and habitual constipation, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, kidney trouble, imbalanced autonomic nervous system, and insomnia. Too few negative Ions in our body can cause many diseases, and have a dangerous effect on our overall health.

How Negative Ions keep us healthy:
Negative Ions enhance our immune system. When the amount of negative Ions increase, the Gamma Globulin in the blood increases resulting in blood rich in protein and antibodies.Negative Ions purify blood cells. According to Dr. Tanaka in Japan, when - Ionization is introduced, the Ions in calcium and natrium (common salt) in the blood increases, and the blood is purified by increased blood alkalinity. 

Negative Ions control the autonomic nervous system. Dr. Tanaka found that negative Ions control the balance in the Autonomic Nervous System between the insulin and adrenal functions. This provides strong resistance to diseases.

Negative Ions revive the cell. When the amount of negative Ions in the blood is increased, the function of a cell is activated. The electrical material exchange speeds up the cell function, and, as a result, nutrition is fully absorbed by the cell and waste material is eliminated. Metabolism is increased and the function of the cell is gradually revived.

by: Jim Karnstedt and Don Strachan

When certain kinds of winds begin to blow throughout the world, hospital admissions, suicides, and crime rates skyrocket. One country-Switzerland- even accepts the blowing of the "Foehn" during the commission of a crime as mitigating evidence in court. These "notorious" desert and sea winds are also linked to minor illnesses and malaise epidemics. Victims' claims range from sleeplessness, irritability, tension, migraines, nausea, palpitations and hot flashes with sweating o shills to tremor, vertigo, swelling, breathing difficulty, and frequent intestinal movement. In addition, elderly persons are affected with depression. apathy, and fatigue..

What causes these "witches' winds." as they are often called, to differ from others? What do they posses or lack that make them a dread to the lands or oceans they blow across?.

Nothing more than an imbalance of invisible, minute particles with an imperceptive electrical charge-positive and negative ions.. According to the experts, positive ions rob us of our good senses and dispositions, while their counterpart, negative ions, enhance them, stimulating everything from plant growth to the human sex drive..

For the uninitiated, ions are charged particles in the air, formed when enough energy acts on a molecule such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water or nitrogen-to eject an electron. The displaced electron attaches itself to a nearby molecule, which then becomes a negative ion (neg-ion). The original molecule (minus an electron) is now a positive ion (pos-ion). These ions, in turn, react with dust and pollutants to form larger particles. Small neg-ions (usually no more than 12 gaseous molecules clustered around a charged atom or molecule) are short-lived and highly mobile..

As long ago as 1789, the Abbe Bertholon, European monk speculated that ions exist and affect people. He recorded the responses of medical patients and normal people to changes in the electrical state of the ambient air. More than a century later, in 1899, two scientists named Elster and Geitel proved the existence of ions. Only since the 1930s have researchers been probing their secrets.

In nature, ions are formed in a variety of ways. About half are created by radioactive gases. Radioactive substances in the soil, cosmic rays, ultraviolet rays, air flow friction, falling water and plants all produce the other half. For example, they stream off the leaves of plants, most notably pines and asparagus ferns..

Ions are apparently also created by the phenomenon of "subterranean suspiration". As Fred Soyka, author of The Ion Effect , told the first Ions and Light Conference held this summer in Atherton, California. "Solar and lunar influences cause the water table to rise, forcing air out of the earth." This prompted Federal Aviation Administration research psychologist, Bruce Rosenberg, to charge the earth with having "bad breath." Being negatively charged, he said, "it breathes positive ions.".

Normally only about one atom in 100,000,000,000,000,000 is ionized making a total of maybe 1000-2000 ions per cubic centimeter (that's like a handful of planets floating in a circle 4 billion miles in diameter). These are usually balanced pretty evenly between positive and negative, with a slight edge toward positive. "However, the normal may not be the optimal," Fred Soyka told New Realities. "On the seashore, where water is always falling, you have about 2000 negative to 1000 positive. That seems to be the ratio that human beings respond to most favorably."

We have all experienced this positive effect, regardless of our proximity to waterfalls or the ocean. Every home has a built in, natural ionizer-the shower. Our daily bath rituals are, in effect, the practice of preventive medicine. Research has shown that falling water creates thousands of negative ions by splitting other wise neutral particles of air, freeing electrons to manifest their vitalizing function. These electrons join up with smaller air particles, thus giving them a predominantly negative charge.

Waterfalls have always been the favorite habitat of mystics and artists. The inspiration and romance generated at places like Niagara Falls and Yosemite have a direct relationship to the lowering of serotonin levels in the blood, caused by the waves of negative ions from the spray of these falls.

Those notorious desert and sea winds mentioned previously raise the ion count, but over-balance the positive-up to a ratio of 33 to 1 positive. As the winds blow through arid areas, they stir up dust and the neg-ions are leeched out. In Israel such winds are called the Sharav; in the Alps the Foehn; along the Mediterranean the Sharkiye (called the Sirocco in Italy and the Xlokk in Malta); in Africa the Simoon, Hamsin and Harmatan; in southern France, the Mistral. There is the Boras of the Adriatic, the Karaburan of the Gobi, the Zondi of Argentina, the Tramontana of Spain. In the U.S., the Chinook plagues the Rockies and the Santa Ana the southern California desert. Still other winds pos-ionize India and Australia. But whatever their name, throughout the world, they are known to blow no good.

One might postulate that the culprit is really humidity, wind or temperature changes, not positive ionization. That has been considered, but doesn't account for the fact that weather-sensitive people react to the approaching Sharav 12 to 24 hours before meteorological instruments do. Positive ionization remains the culprit. So much for natural pos-ions.

The really lethal doses of pos-ions lie within our polluted cities, which William Radley, president of the Bio-Environmental Systems, refers to as "ion prisons." Car exhausts, factory fumes, tire dust, cigarette smoke, cooking and heating fumes, dust and soot gobble up neg-ions, either neutralizing or positively charging them. Inside, steel and concrete buildings act as electro-magnetic Faraday cages, absorbing the charges of negative ions. Synthetic building materials, clothing and furniture coverings eat up more; so do the metal ducts covering heating and air conditioning outlets. The positive static charge of plastics takes care of the rest, so that in a typical interior, the neg-ion count may be below 100 per cubic centimeter. (The minimal amount for optimum human functioning is about 1000/ccm.) In the words of Dr. William Rea, Chief of Surgery at Brookhaven Medical Center in Texas, "Houses don't breathe like they used to."

Several people have investigated the mechanisms of pos-ions' debilitating effects. According to the Russian ion pioneer, Vasil'yev, ions act on the endings of pulmonary afferent nerve fibers, altering the functional state of the central nervous system and, through it, the peripheral organs. Sulman et al (1970) found that weather-sensitive people excrete more of the neuro-hormone serotonin than non-sensitive people. Serotonin is secreted by the pineal gland and the intestines. It affects sleep, mood, nerve impulses, blood-clotting and contraction of smooth muscles. LSD effects are caused by a serotonin inhibitor, and chronic serotonin depletion is characteristic of some types of mental anomalies.

Sulman's work supports the findings of American ion dean Dr. Albert P. Krueger, who discovered that the specific negative ion or oxygen speeds up the rate at which serotonin is oxidized in the bloodstream.

Krueger also found that pos-ions slow the sweeping action of the tiny hairs in our throats from 900 to 600 beats per minute and cut mucus flow, thus lowering our resistance to airborne allergens. For example, the pos-ion carbon dioxide causes contracture of the back tracheal wall. Pos-ions also cause vasoconstriction and increased respiration rate.

Oddly enough, notes ion author Soyka, "About five percent of the population seems to react well to a positive charge. They feel euphoric."

If pos-ions are the bad guys, neg-ions wear white hats and shoot silver bullets. Their beneficial effect was first discovered in 1932 by Dr. C.W. Hansell at RCA Laboratories. Dr. Hansell was startled by the violent mood shifts of a co-worker who sat beside an electrostatic generator. He observed carefully and discovered that his colleague was ebullient when the machine produced neg-ions and morose when it made pos-ions.

Subsequently researchers (mostly abroad) have found that neg-ions reduce neurosis and anxiety, heighten appetite and thirst and stimulate sexual behavior. They improved performance of voluntary movements: 81.2 percent of drivers with neg-ion generators scored in the top half on driving tests: 86 percent in the top half on reaction time. In school they sharpen mental functioning and reduce error rates. After a year with neg-ion generators in their classrooms, a group of kindergarten teachers reported that their students concentrated better and showed almost no 'weather effect." Hyperactive kids were calmer. absenteeism was down (except on Mondays} and the teachers themselves felt less fatigued.

Neg-ions promote alpha brain waves and increase brain wave amplitude, which translates to a higher awareness level. Neg-ion Induced alpha waves spread from the occipital area to the parietal and temporal and even reach the frontal lobes, spreading evenly across the right and left brain hemispheres. All of this creates an overall calming effect.

On the physical side, they have given relief from hay fever. sinusitis. bronchial asthma. allergies. migraine and burn and post-operative pains. Along with the burn pain relief. they lesson infections dry the burns faster, heal them more quickly and leave less scarring. After operations. not only did 57 percent of Dr. Igho Hart Kornblueh's patients treated with large doses of neg-ions (10,000/ccm) feel less pain (as opposed to 22.5 percent of controls), but restlessness and infection were also reduced and healing quickened.

But why are ions therapeutic? Partly because they kill germs. Back in the 1930s. a Russian team headed by A L. Tchijevski found that large ion doses of either polarity retarded bacteria colony formation on plates. Ionization also sterilized enclosed air. Latter experiments duplicating Tchijevski's work noted an exponential bacteria decay rate of 23 percent per minute for untreated air 34 percent per minute for air with pos-ions. and 78 percent per minute for negatively charged air. They concluded that the pos-ion decay rate was due to simple bonding or the ions with the bacteria, whereas the neg-ions actually killed them.

Interestingly, animals larger than microbes find neg-ions beneficial. Rats learn better and are less anxious. Mice live longer. (Mice with flu die more quickly If deprived of neg-ions.) Silkworm eggs hatch earlier, larvae grow faster, spinning begins sooner, cocoons are heavier. chickens lay more eggs and grow more plump. Sheep grow faster and supply more wool.

And in the vegetable kingdom. plant seedlings grow up to 50 percent more when charged. Fruit stays fresh longer: after 10 days, ionized tomatoes were still fresh while untreated controls rotted.

Researches offer a variety of reasons for ion effect. Dr Krueger explains that plants benefit from both positive and negative ions because "ions expedite both the uptake of ion and its utilization in the production of iron containing enzymes (and) stimulate the metabolism of ATP in the chloroplasts and augment both nucleic acid metabolism and oxygen uptake."

In humans, most researchers think that neg-ions act on our capacity to absorb and utilize oxygen, accelerating the blood's delivery of oxygen to our cells and tissues. Dr. R. Gualterotti of the University of Milan says they make wider cell nuclei with more volume. The weight of evidence supports Krueger's theory that ions break down serotonin in the bloodstream. Lest negative ions sound too much like a cure-all, testers report that neg-ions work only so long as they're being inhaled. As the charge is most readily absorbed through the olfactory nerves, you need to breathe them in through your nose, not your mouth. Dr. Krueger cautions that ''the biological (non clinical) effects produced by atmospheric ions are not dramatic; on the contrary, they tend to be limited in degree.''

But that's atmospheric ions. Artificially generated ions arc another story. Just as positive ions can be generated artificially by pollution. so can negative ions be man madeÑwith negative ion generators. It's true, you can't plug in an ionizer at night and expect new muscles in the morning. But their effects are not always subtle. '' People are allergic to the Twentieth Century,'' says Bio-Environmental Systems President William Radley. "Our architects and interior designers are poisoning us. Some people are so sick or so intolerant of chemicals that sometimes the results of ionization are quite dramatic.''

Since the 1950s, manufacturers have produced dozens of ion generators for laboratory and home use. Early machines ionized atoms and molecules via high-voltage electrical fields, incandescent materials, ultraviolet light, x-rays and alpha or beta radiation from isotopes. The output of the electrostatic, incandescent, and ultraviolet generators tended to deteriorate rapidly. In addition, electrostatic and ultraviolet machines produced ozone, a toxic oxygen allotrope, as a by-product.

Dr. Krueger used tritium-based generators during the 50's. Tritium is a beta radiating hydrogen isotope with a half-life of 12.5 years. A minute amount of the gas is sealed in zirconium and deposited on a stainless steel foil. An electrical potential difference varying from 300 to 2000 volts DC is used to separate pos-ions from neg-ions before they recombine in the plasma. Tritium machines allow precise dosages, but unfortunately tritium is so dangerous that it's illegal (except in fusion power plants). This, the tritium generators manufactured during this period were seized by the FDA.

During the 1960s, ion collectors drew air through an electrostatic field between parallel plates or concentric cylinders: the ions were collected on the plates. Present ion units apply a high voltage electrical signal directly to the air to create an intense electric field around the emitters.

Why not set up a monster ionizer over Manhattan? Well, safety dictates a size limit. Dr Robert Massy of the University of the Trees reported at the Ions and Light Conference that, whereas a 5 ,000-volt machine produces less than .05 parts per million of ozone (the limit allowed by the FDA), extremely high-voltage units invariably fail to meet standards.

Although most people in the U.S. are not ion-wise, generators have been popular elsewhere in the world for decades. In World War 11, Luftwaffe planes were negatively ionized by electric field generators, in order to reduce pilot fatigue. And it worked! (Electric field generators are like female ion generators: instead of ejecting ions, they attract them. Germany and the USSR use them in government buildings, hospitals, schools, factories, restaurants, health spas, beauty salons, homes, offices, cars and trucks. In Canada, Fred Soyka notes. "Ionization has become a household word. My book became a best-seller, and innumerable articles have come out.''

The U.S. has equipped nuclear submarines with ion machines. Ionizers are being used industrially in auto spray paint booths, food processing plants, grain storage bins and chemical spray factories.

Architects and designers are beginning to see the health benefits from fountains and rooftop solariums placed in urban environments, echoing the wisdom of their forefathers in the Roman culture. The growing recognition of our biological needs amidst our artificial interiors is opening up whole new industries armed at replicating nature indoors. In addition, we could all take Rosenberg's advice and wear underwear of polyvinyl chloride to attract neg-ions. From BVD's to PVC's then, it's the negative ion generation.

Several machines are now on the market for home and office use ranging in cost from about $70 to several thousand dollars You just plug them in and they ionize away. But, here are some considerations to keep In mind. If something or someone is between you and the generator, the ion count around you will drop. If you and the machine are in contact with the same dielectric material (as for instance, If it and your arms are on the same desk), a charge will build up between you and it, and this charge will repel ions. (Supposedly this doesn't happen with the latest machines.) Also, your own static charge will often repel ions, especially in dry indoor wintertime air. Synthetic clothing absorbs ions: wear cotton or wool, which have neutral charges.

At the Ions and Light Conference, Fred Soyka told New Realities of some in-progress Swiss research on ion machine frequencies. Frequencies of 60-100 Hz (cycles/sec) are stimulating to a person. while less than 25 Hz are relaxing. "If you have 60-100 Hz frequency machine," Soyka says "you may have trouble sleeping well with it on. Manufacturers ought to look into machines with adjustable frequency ranges. Some European machines already modulate frequency so people can dial their needs electrically.

A problem with ionizers has been determining their effectiveness. A typical generator may supposedly churn out 100 billion ions per second. But how many of them survive a yard past the machine? Ion counted do exist but up unto now no store or salesperson selling generators has had one around. Inexpensive units are now on the assembly line. Ion counters must be used carefully: within a room the ion concentration vanes a lot depending on how far you are from the generator. from conducting walls from charge buildup on insulating walls from curtains or draperies . Poor measurability panty explains why shoddy machines have been marketed (and confiscated by the FDA in the past. Today regrettably the field is still not without its quacks. According to Brute Sullivan. president of Environmental Sciences Corp. ''Some people Are selling generators for thousands One company calls its machine The Air Doctor.''

Advanced technology has eliminated main problems associated with previous ion devices. and as such there are more on the market today. Moreover, it is now possible to create higher voltages with lower current, thereby reducing or eliminating the production of ozone (Federal law prohibits the production of more than .05 parts per million or 50ppb of ozone). So to ensure that device meets the buyer's needs, one should carefully examine the manufacturer's literature.

In addition buyers should look for a warranty on parts and labor including a description of the room size affected by the machine. and even a money-back trial period offer. A list of authorized service centers should also be provided to the consumer. So caution is still the watchword since industry standardization has yet to be instituted, although industry standards for ion measurement and output are currently being drawn up by several manufacturers.

The first call for some kind of industry standards was issued by ion pioneer Igho Hart Kornblueh back in 1961: "Standardization of the generating and metering equipment by an independent authority would terminate the hasty and regrettable trend to market ion generator of questionable safety, quality and output."

Today Fred Soyka echoes his words: ''Measuring the sending capacity of these machines is very important. You should be able to say, like when you buy a 60 watt light bulb, "I'm getting an ionizer of this capacity, and to correlate that to room sizes." A giant step was taken at the Ions and Light Conference where the International Bio-Environmental Society was formed to set up standards and regulations within the industry. "We've already gone though our Inquisition on ionization," said president Bruce Sullivan. "We don't need another one.'' The Association is building a box within which the ion output of different machines can be counted at a standard distance and humidity.

Ions have been around for eons. Science has had its eye on the ion for 80 years. But public ignorance, generally non-ionized interiors and lack of generator standards, is the hallmark of a science and industry still in its infancy. Dr. E.R. Holiday thinks we know as much about air today as we did about 70 years ago when biochemists thought proteins, fat and carbohydrates were all we needed. Then a substance was discovered that prevented rickets: the first vitamin. Ions might well be, as Holiday suggests, "the vitamins of the air."

James Karnstedt is a writer, lecturer and researcher whose interests lie in the field of light, color, sound and ions as they affect human consciousness and health. He uses and considers the Electrocorp ionizers the best made on the market today.

What are some of the other benefits experienced with the use of Negative Ions? 
- Less susceptibility to colds and flu
- Natural detoxification of the body
- Improvement in breathing through the more efficient operation of cilia (little hairs on the windpipe)
- Improved sleep, relaxation and meditation 
- Increased lung capacity 
- Improved learning ability for children. (Normal children 8.4%; Learning disabled 23.6%, Mildly retarded 54.8%) 
- Increased utilisation of Vitamins C and B 
- Relief from allergies and hay fever
- Relief from migraine headaches
- Relief from sinus congestion and inflammation
- Reduction in the severity of asthma attacks
- Enhanced immune system
- Relief from discomfort caused by excess serotonin and histamine in the body
- Relief from sore throat, bronchial cough and nausea
- Normalization of hormone imbalances
- Decreased depression, irritability and tension
- Increased alertness
- Increased work productivity
- Improved concentration
- More effective functioning of all body systems
- Increased blood flow with resultant increased oxygen-carrying capacity, both of which are basic to help the body healing itself
- Changes in migration of calcium ions which can either bring calcium ions to heal a broken bone in half the usual time, or can help move calcium away from painful, arthritic joints
- The pH balance (acid/alkaline) of various body fluids. (Often out of balance in conjunction with illness or abnormal conditions) 
- Hormone production from the endocrine glands can be either increased or decreased by Negative Ion stimulation
- Altering of enzyme activity and other bio-chemical processes
- Circulation is improved
- Autonomic nerves are excited
- Immune system is strengthened

Here is what some of the experts say about Negative Ions:
"The normal ion count in fresh country air is 2,000 to 4,000 negative ions per cubic centimeter (about the size of a sugar cube). At Yosemite Falls, you'll experience over 100,000 negative Ions per cubic centimeter. On the other hand, the level is far below 100 per cubic centimeter on the Los Angeles freeways during rush hour."The following was printed in "Economy Daily News" January 30, 2002 

Negative ions are beneficial to human body in four major ways:
- Strengthen the functions of autonomic nerves
- Reinforces collagen (tissues that are resilient and tension-related)
- Improves the permeability of the cell's prototype plasma membranes (improves metabolism)
- Strengthens the body's immune system

John Heinerman, Ph.D says:
Negative ion regeneration for youthfulness and longevity. Negative ions neutralize pollutants and provide positive effects on health to:
- Stimulate the reticulo-endothelial system, a group of defense cells in our bodies that marshal our resistance to disease
- Act on our capacity to absorb and utilize oxygen. Negative ions in the bloodstream accelerate the delivery of oxygen to our cells andtissues
- Speed up oxidation of seratonin (5-hydroxtryptamine) in the blood. This is well known to have far reaching effects on mood, pain relief and sexual drive

The information provided at Dalimara is not intended for diagnosis or treatment of any health problem or for prescription of any medication or other treatment. Please consult your health care provider for advice about a specific medical condition.